How Refrigerator Works | Principles, Cycles, Modes

As long as the technology functions properly, the user is not interested in how it works. You will need to know how the refrigerator worked when the breakdown occurred: help to avoid a serious malfunction or quickly determine the location. Proper exploitation also depends a lot on user awareness. In the article, consider the device of the household refrigerator and its work.


How the compressor fridge works

compressor fridge works

Atlant, Stinol, Indesit, and other models are equipped with compressors that trigger the cooling process in the chamber.

The main components of the part:

  • Compressor (motor). It can be inverter and linear. By launching the engine, Freon moves through the system’s tubes, providing cooling in the cells.
  • A capacitor is a tube on the back of the case (the latest models can be placed on the side). The heat that the compressor produces during operation, the capacitor gives to the environment. So the fridge doesn’t overheat.

That’s why manufacturers forbid to install equipment near batteries, radiators, and furnaces. Then overheating can not be avoided, and the engine will quickly fail.

  • Vaporizer. Here the freon boils and goes into a gaseous state. At the same time, a large amount of heat is collected, the tubes in the chamber are cooled along with the air in the compartment.
  • A valve for thermoregulation. Supports the given pressure for the movement of the refrigerant.
  • A refrigerant is a freon or isobutane gas. It circulates through the system, contributing to cooling in the cells.

It is important to understand how the technique works: it does not produce cold. The air is cooled by the selection of heat and its return to the surrounding space. Freon passes into the vaporizer, absorbs heat, and passes into a vaporous state. The engine activates the engine piston. The latter compresses the freon and creates pressure to distill it through the system. Getting into the capacitor, the refrigerant cools down (the heat goes out), turning into a liquid.

To set the desired temperature in the cells, a thermoregulator is installed. It is enough to put values on the panel in electronically controlled models (LG, Samsung, Bosch).

Going into the filter dryer, the refrigerant gets rid of moisture and passes through the capillary tubes. Then it hits the vaporizer again. The motor distills the freon and repeats the cycle until the optimal temperature is set in the compartment. As soon as this happens, the control board sends a signal to the start-up relay, which disables the engine.


Single Door and Double refrigerator

Despite the same structure, there are differences in the principle of work. Old double Door models are equipped with one vaporizer for both cameras. Therefore, if when defrosting mechanically removes the ice and touches the vaporizer, the entire refrigerator will fail.

The new double Door refrigerator cabinet has two compartments, each equipped with a vaporizer. Both cameras are isolated from each other. Usually, in such cases, the freezer is located below, and the refrigeration compartment is on top.

Since the refrigerator has zero-temperature zones (read what the freshness zone in the refrigerator is), the freon is cooled in the freezer to a certain level and then moved to the upper compartment. As soon as the indicators reach the norm, the thermoregulator is triggered, and the start relay disables the motor.

The most popular devices with an ODI motor, although with two compressors, are also gaining popularity. The latter function in the same way, just for each camera is responsible for a separate compressor.

But it is not only in two-chamber equipment. It is possible to set the temperature separately. There are such devices (Minsk 126, 128, and 130) where electromagnetic valves are installed. They block the supply of freon to the fridge compartment. Based on the readings of the temperature regulator, cooling is performed.

The more complex design involves special sensors that measure the temperature outside and adjust it inside the camera.


How long the compressor lasts

The exact readings are not specified in the instructions. The main thing is that the power of the engine is enough for the normal freezing of products. There is a general efficiency: if the device functions for 15 minutes and 25 minutes rest, then 15/ (15-25) is 0.37.

If the calculated figures were less than 0.2, you need to adjust the readings of the thermopile. More than 0.6 indicates a violation of the tightness of the camera.


Absorbent fridge

In this structure, the working liquid (ammonia) evaporates. The refrigerant circulates through the system by dissolving ammonia in the water. The liquid then moves to the desorber and then to the dephlegmator, where it is again divided into water and ammonia.

Refrigerators of this type are rarely used in everyday life as the basis of poisonous components.


Models with No Frost and a “crying” wall

The technique with the Nou Frost system is at the peak of popularity today. Because technology allows you to defrost the refrigerator once a year, to wash. Features of functioning ensure removing moisture from the system so the chamber does not form ice and snow.

There is a vaporizer in the freezer compartment. The cold it produces spreads through the refrigeration compartment with the help of a ventilator. In the chamber at the level of the shelves, there are holes where a cold stream comes out and is evenly distributed across the compartment.

After the work cycle, the back work starts. The timer launches the TEN vaporizers. The ice melts, and the moisture is outwards, where it evaporates.

“Crying vaporizer.” The name is based on the principle that ice is formed during the operation of the compressor on the vaporizer. As soon as the motor shuts down, the ice melts, and the condensate flows into the drain hole. The thawing method is called a drip.

Super freeze

The feature is also called “Fast Freeze.” It is implemented in many double Door models “Haer,” “Birusa, “Ariston.” In electromechanical models, the model is triggered by the click of a button or the regulator’s turn. The compressor starts non-stop until the products are completely frozen both inside and out. After that, the function should be turned off.

It is recommended to include a mode for up to 72 hours.

Electronic control automatically disables the super freeze, according to the signals of thermoelectric sensors.


Electrical scheme

To find the cause of the problem yourself, you will need knowledge of the electrical circuit.

The current, which is subject to the diagram, goes this way:

  • Goes through the contacts of the thermopile (1);
  • Thaw buttons (2);
  • Heat relay (3);
  • Start-up relay (5);
  • served on the working winding of the engine (4.1).

The non-working winding of the engine misses the voltage more than the specified value. At the same time, the start relay is triggered, closes the contacts, and starts winding. After reaching the desired temperature, the thermalrel contacts are unlocked, and the engine stops the engine from working.

Now you understand the refrigerator device and how it should work. This will help to operate the device properly and extend its life.

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