Hyperpigmentation and age spots often seem to be an inevitable part of increasing age. However, thanks to advances in science, we already know exactly how pigmentation forms, and thanks to this, we know how to prevent their formation. Targeted care should include 7 necessary steps.
The skin is the largest body organ. Therefore its health and (healthy) appearance often determine how the surroundings perceive us. As several studies have shown, uneven skin tone and excessive pigmentation can be sources of depression and emotional discomfort in affected individuals and their more negative perception of the environment.
Non-inherited excessive pigmentation is a widespread problem that many people solve by visiting dermatological surgeries and undergoing professional procedures to reduce dark spots on the skin. They are often caused by excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation, subsequently factors hormonal or inflammatory processes in the skin. However, in addition to dermo-cosmetic procedures, topic-applied products can also relieve hyperpigmentation.
What Is Melanin!
The skin dye melanin is responsible for pigmentation. Its essential function is to protect the skin from UV rays’ damage when it covers skin cells’ nuclei. Melanin is produced by specialized skin cells melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. These contain granules in their cytoplasm called melanosomes containing melanin, which, if necessary, after ultraviolet exposure, can be transported to adjacent skin cells of keratinocytes to protect them from ray damage. Melanin production is influenced not only by UV radiation but also by hormones that stimulate melanocytes to be activity.
7 Tips To Reduce Melanin
Hyperpigmentation will get rid of oxyresveratrol. Also give vitamin C a change excessive pigmentation is a bugger. Once it appears on the skin, it’s hard enough to get rid of it. Prevention is key in its emergence, i.e. consistent protection against ultraviolet radiation. However, when you already have dark spots on your skin, prevention is not enough, and an action plan must be taken.
However, we will be satisfied for today that the enzyme tyrosinase, a copper-containing glycoprotein that accelerates the hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine, is mainly to blame, resulting in the formation of eumelanin, a dark brown type of melanin responsible for dark spots on the skin.
Therefore, inhibition of tyrosinase activity is one of the effective ways to prevent the formation of excessive pigmentation. Overall, however, there are seven tactics you should be interested in hyperpigmentation.
1. Preventing the Movement of the Amino acid Tyrosine:
Since tyrosine is the building block of melanin, it will not be converted into pigment if we prevent it from entering the melanocyte. An important active substance in this regard is leucine. It is a competitor of tyrosine, and itself enters melanocytes, thereby reducing the amount of tyrosine in them. Thanks to this, it promotes skin lightening and reduction of pigmentation.
2. Stopping the Synthesis of the Enzyme Tyrosinase
Some active substances can prevent biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase, thus reducing melanin production. These are natural extracts that affect mitochondrial RNA tyrosinase at the level of genetic transcription. The less tyrosine enzyme there is, the less tyrosine can turn into melanin.
What substances suspend the synthesis of this enzyme? Like acetyl glycyl beta-alanine and tetrapeptide-30. The first mentioned peptic inhibits the transport of melanin and prevents tyrosinase development, reducing its gene expression. The second peptide, tetrapeptide-30, was directly developed to lighten the skin with a similar mechanism. Besides, it acts as an anti-inflammatory, thus further reducing the risk of pigmentation.
3. Inhibition of the Activity of the Enzyme Tyrosinase
Tyrozinasis is the basic enzyme responsible for the formation of melanin. However, if the active part of this molecule is blocked, tyrosine cannot be converted into melanin. This is taken care of by the active substance oxyresveratrol, which is 32 times more effective at inhibiting tyrosinase than the commonly used cubic acid.
Also, L-ascorbic acid ethylated and turmeric root extract show a similar effect. Inhibition of tyrosinase is the most common skin lightening mechanism. However, most inhibitors of this enzyme have only a temporary effect, so they only work for their active application duration. After the end of the application, tyrosinase returns to activity, and thus further pigmentation is formed.
Oxyresveratrol is a natural substance that occurs, for example, in the fruits of mulberries or cautious alimony. Ethylated L-ascorbic acid brightens the skin by preventing pigmentation. It inhibits the synthesis of melanin by preventing tyrosinase’s functioning, blocking the copper part of this enzyme, which then cannot form melanin. They also prevent melanogenesis by their antioxidant action, because free radicals directly affect the synthesis of melanin by oxidising the amino acid tyrosine, which triggers the production of skin pigment.
Turmeric root extract comes from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa), the active substance itself is called tetrahydro-diferuloylmethane. This exceptional lightener and skin brightener again inhibits the enzyme tyrosinase activity, similar to cubic acid. Like acrobatic acid, tetrahydro-diferuloylmethane is also an important antioxidant, contributing even more to its lightening effect.
4. Promoting the Degradation of Tyrosinase
The less tyrosinase is, the lower the synthesis of melanin. The fatty acid ethyl linoleate stimulates the endogenous proteolytic breakdown of tyrosinase.
5. Preventing the Transfer of Melanin to Skin Cells
Once melanin forms, it must move from its parent melanocyte cells to “common” skin cells, where it causes them to dark and over-pigmentation. It is reduced when this transfer is prevented.
What substances? Alpha glucosyl hesperidin is adequate, thanks to which the melanin units connect, which impairs their transport of dendrites to the cells of the skin of keratinocytes. Also, the peptic acetyl glycyl beta-alanine reduces the transport of melanin to keratinocytes.
6. Preventing Modification of Tyrosinase
The modification of the tyrosinase helps to stabilize it and increases its affinity for melanin synthesis. However, Glutathione reduces this modification by impairing the stability of this enzyme and thus reducing melanin production. This peptide and powerful antioxidant occur naturally in the human body, but its level in the skin is too low to produce visible results in removing pigmentation. Therefore, it is advisable to supply it to the skin topically.
Reducing the number of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) with intracellular or extracellular antioxidants acts preventively against indirect activation of the melanogenesis cycle by preventing the amino acid tyrosine oxidation. This may reduce melanin production.
Damage to the skin by UV rays, on the other hand, increases intercellular communication between melanocytes and keratinocytes, thus facilitating the transport of melanin between these two types of cells, thereby impairing the manifestations of hyperpigmentation. Therefore, rely on antioxidants such as oxyresveratrol, glutathione or L-ascorbic acid ethyl acid in topical application.
All the mentioned active substances can be found in the serum intended to produce excessive pigmentation and old spots White Balance Brightening Serum.